The cunning and ability of ravens to learn complex tricks have been known for a long time, but now scientists are sure that these birds are capable of more. Namely, they have discovered a primary consciousness, the basis of reason, by which, for example, a person differs from animals. Moreover, it is possible that a similar potential is inherent in all birds, whose brains turned out to be much more complicated than we thought before.
Previous ideas about the presence of intelligence in different creatures were firmly tied to the structure of their brain - in particular, the presence of a complex cortex with many convolutions. This is where the processing of signals from the outside world and data analysis takes place. Whoever has more convolutions is also more capable of intelligent activity. In addition to the man himself, these are primates, dolphins, dogs and even cats. But the brain of most birds, including ravens, is smooth.
Physiologist Andreas Nieder of the University of Tübingen and biopsychologist Martin Stacho of the Ruhr University of Bochum in Germany independently conducted studies of the brain of birds. They studied the activity of neurons in flashes of light of different brightness and intensity. Nieder worked with crows, Stakho connected electrodes to the brains of an owl and a pigeon - the results were about the same. The bird's brain reacted to complex signals like a human brain, taking into account personal subjective experience.
Simply put, experiments have shown that ravens and other birds definitely have primary consciousness, the ability to be aware of the world, oneself, one's actions and plan them to achieve the goal. And the smoothness of the cerebral cortex has nothing to do with it, they process signals differently, although it is not yet clear how. Stakho put forward a hypothesis that the ravens retained a kind of "thinking" mechanism from an ancient ancestor common to humans. Nieder agrees with him - such a creature with the rudiments of reason lived about 320 million years ago, and during this time his descendants evolved, began to differ greatly from each other, but retained the parental gift of reason.