A team of German and Swedish scientists, studying various states of water, used an unusual instrument in their experiments - a laser coherent light source. This is an X-ray laser, and the most powerful in the world. The device generates very short bursts of radiation with a monstrous burst of energy, causing matter to behave differently than we are used to.
In the experiment with water, scientists simply "boiled" it for 75 femtoseconds, having managed to heat it up to 100, 000 ° C during this negligible period of time. And we got a new, obscure type of substance, which was conventionally called "water plasma". It is also "liquid plasma", since with the explicit properties of the plasma, the object also showed signs of a liquid.
With ordinary heating, the liquid molecules gradually receive energy and begin to vibrate, but when they are irradiated with an X-ray laser, electrons are literally knocked out of them. All molecular bonds were instantly destroyed, the atoms turned into an ionized medium and should have become a plasma. However, due to the incredibly high speed of the process, they did not have time to scatter and the density of the substance remained the same as that of liquid water.
And if so, what parameters of thermal conductivity, heat capacity, electrical conductivity will this form of matter have? Researchers have already found similarities in it with the substance in the gas giant Jupiter, but basically this is terra incognita and the experiments will continue. In parallel, the X-ray laser itself is being studied, which they hope to use in the future to obtain various types of particles and matter.