Israeli scientists have reported significant progress in the development of technology for storing data in the DNA molecule. It has already been created by nature itself as a very complex and capacious information carrier. According to current views, it is quite realistic to achieve a recording density of 10 petabytes per gram of DNA. This means that the entire colossal volume of YouTube videos could fit in one teaspoon.
To encode information in DNA, you first need to translate binary sequences into combinations of four nucleotides A, C, G and T. Then, during the synthesis process, the nucleotides are lined up in long chains - this is how an arbitrary amount of data is recorded. To read them, you need to use a sequencing procedure, dividing the whole DNA into fragments of nucleotides.
Israeli scientists from the Technion have succeeded in making a breakthrough in three directions. First, they expanded the "alphabet" by adding new encoding values beyond the four base nucleotides. Secondly, we reduced the number of rounds of synthesis per unit of information by 20%. Third, they significantly improved the bug fixing mechanism.
The current methods of synthesis and sequencing are inherently redundant because nature tries to create many backups - each DNA molecule is reproduced in large quantities. It is difficult to change this, so scientists chose a different path and, using mathematical methods, applied redundancy to expand the number of "letters" for translating a binary code. In the future, they hope to reduce the synthesis time when encoding by 75%. And this is the real path to storing gigantic amounts of data in DNA.