Harvard has proposed a concept for reforming the US government, designed to solve the urgent problem of unequal representation of states in the US Senate. Today, both California, 40 million and Wyoming, with its 580 thousand people, have exactly two senators and the same influence on power processes. This is unfair, the standard has long been outdated, but it is spelled out in the Constitution, and therefore it cannot be simply changed.
It is necessary to change the Constitution itself, and this requires guaranteed unanimity, which is not observed. Therefore, the authors from Harvard simply propose to increase the number of senators one-time by adding 254 loyal votes at once, which will ensure the desired advantage. But every senator must represent a state, and everyone is already taken. This means that 127 new states need to be created.
The paradox is that the current US Constitution makes it easy to do this - for the new states there are no requirements for population and physical space. For example, you can take a separate house or urban area, enlist the support of neighbors and declare a separate state. In American history, this has happened more than once, only large territories were divided, but with the same goal - to create two additional votes for the new state.
But there is a catch - you cannot allocate the territory of another state to a state if it opposes. And so the ideal option is Washington, DC, which is not a state. In addition, there are enough people living here to easily "cut" the territory into 127 pieces and assign each state status with its own senators. It is possible and 150 or 200, but it does not matter, it is still a temporary measure and is needed only for rewriting the Constitution. But what new system of fair representation to include there is an open question.